Analysis on the current status of veterinary raw powder in China
------------ Reprinted in China Breeding Net
In recent years, the direct use of veterinary raw powder (ie raw material medicine) in veterinary clinics has become more common, which has led to a series of problems, such as the occurrence of serious toxic and side effects, the increase in the rate of death of livestock and poultry, growth retardation, The production of multi-drug resistant bacteria and the increase of drug residues have brought many hidden dangers to food safety and livestock and poultry health. The author has analyzed this phenomenon, to await the attention of relevant departments.
Intensive use of veterinary raw powder in intensive farms
Poultry. The types of drugs currently selected in poultry-scale farms are relatively complex. In the selection of chemical drugs, some of them use imported drugs, such as liquid vitamins, ligamicin, and new fertilizers, while most of them use veterinary raw powder. However, the quality of these veterinary raw powders is uneven, and some suppliers are lured by high profits to add soluble excipients to the raw powder, thereby reducing the drug content, resulting in some raw powder content less than 20%, but the surface Low cost has prompted some farms to still choose to use veterinary raw meal.
Pig-scale pig farms also use veterinary raw meal directly, but they are used less lightly than poultry farms. This is partly due to the pig's sensitive taste, which is inconvenient whether it is in drinking water or feed Add to.
The current status of the use of veterinary raw powder for small farms and free-range households
The size of small poultry farms is generally 10,000 to 50,000, and the size of free-range households is currently more than 3,000. The use of veterinary raw powders in small farms is more common. They have accumulated some experience in medication and often only consider the price. They buy some raw powders after packaging. These raw powders are only attached with a simple label or only a name, and their price Most of them are lower than the market price, but the content is generally inadequate, some even only about 20%; some are also mixed with other drugs, so as to be fake. The free-range households lack the experience of using medicine and dispensing medicine, and more regular preparations are used, and there is also the phenomenon of using the original powder individually.
Disadvantages of using raw animal powder
It is inconvenient to directly use veterinary raw powder for measurement. It is necessary to know the feed or water consumption of livestock and poultry, and it can be converted into the amount of use of each animal. It is necessary to know the pharmacokinetic parameters of this drug in this animal, And the pure conversion of this medicine, etc., and these key points are difficult for general veterinarians to grasp, not to mention the general breeders.
Uneven mixed raw animal powder directly used in drinking water or mixing materials is easy to mix unevenly, which is why the country prohibits the direct use of veterinary medicine raw materials in farms. Uneven mixing will not achieve the therapeutic effect. It can even lead to poisoning, especially for drugs with a small safety range, such as Maduramycin, whose safety range is less than twice the normal usage. It is a little careless. It will cause poisoning, so the premix factory generally chooses 1% maduramycin premix to use instead of the original powder.
There are many ways to administer wasted drugs due to low bioavailability, and oral administration is subject to digestive tract acid-base effects, microbial effects, digestive enzyme effects, food composition effects, and liver elimination after absorption. Utilization is low. Some drugs have bioavailability of less than 10%, and such drugs cannot be administered orally, so not all drugs are suitable for oral administration.
Most of the raw powder can not be administered by drinking water. The main route of administration for poultry is drinking water, but at present, except for egg birds and breeders at a certain stage, powder or self-ingredients are still used. Others are basically using commercial pellets, so the farm It is not convenient for mixed feeding. The administration of drinking water is not suitable for all drugs. For example, penicillin is unstable in drinking water and will quickly hydrolyze; some drugs (such as florfenicol) are insoluble in water and need to be made into a water-soluble preparation through a special process. Therefore, the original powder drinking water administration is subject to many restrictions.
Oral absorption does not absorb some medicines that are soluble in water, but oral absorption, such as aminoglycosides, certain cephalosporins, oral absorption is limited, can only be used to treat intestinal infections, but not for systemic infections.
Poor palatability When veterinary raw powder is used for direct drinking, some animals with sensitive tastes (such as pigs) will not drink it, but there are also some cases where the water consumption of poultry drops significantly after some medicine is mixed with water. If the original powder is made into a preparation through a special process, it can mask its bad taste, thereby improving the palatability.
Reasons for prohibiting the use of raw animal powder
National laws and regulations do not allow the use of veterinary raw powder. The People ’s Republic of China Veterinary Drug Administration Regulations expressly prohibit the use of raw veterinary raw powder in feedlots, and prohibit the sale of pharmaceutical raw materials by veterinary raw material and human raw material production units. To units other than veterinary medicine production enterprises, such as feed processing plants and livestock and poultry farms. The drugs added to the feed by the feed factory must be within the legal scope, and the preparation processed by the veterinary drug factory must be added.
The adulteration of veterinary raw powder is serious. Some veterinary drug distribution units sell veterinary drug raw materials to the farms. At the beginning, they supply pure powder, but after a while, when they know that the farms do not have the identification conditions and knowledge, they Adding some soluble auxiliary materials (such as glucose powder) to the raw powder results in uneven quality of the raw veterinary powder purchased in the farm, and the content of some veterinary drugs is less than half, and the effect is good or bad.
The compounding of veterinary drugs requires high technical knowledge. At present, mixed infections of livestock and poultry diseases are more common. The use of a single drug in clinical treatment of diseases often does not solve the problem well. Most of them require compounding drugs, and compounding drugs requires a certain amount of drug experience Veterinarians can do it, even in some large-scale farms can not be fully equipped.
How to solve the abuse problem of veterinary raw powder
Strengthen the supervision of the use of veterinary drugs At present, the rational use of veterinary drugs is a weak link in the management of veterinary drugs. Farms (households) have irregular behaviors in the use of drugs, but due to the limited number of veterinary drug supervision personnel, it is difficult to perform inspections on farms (households) As the supervision is also limited, it is difficult to manage.
Strengthen the supervision of veterinary drug business units The veterinary drug business units should be inspected from time to time to gradually achieve standardization.
Clarify veterinary prescription drugs and non-prescription drugs According to the new "Veterinary Drugs Management Regulations", veterinary drugs are divided into prescription drugs and non-prescription drugs. Users can buy over-the-counter medicines directly; prescription medicines can only be bought with the prescription of a licensed veterinarian, so as to prevent the occurrence of drug abuse. However, it is currently difficult to implement a prescription drug management system. Even in some drug stores, prescription drugs can be purchased without a prescription. It can be seen that in the management of veterinary drugs, the use of prescription and non-prescription drugs has a long way to go.
Implementing the system of licensed veterinarians At present, the Ministry of Agriculture is organizing the examination of licensed veterinarians and implementing the system of licensed veterinarians, but a considerable number of veterinarians are not included. Technical services and veterinary drug promotion work, if these people are not effectively managed, the veterinary drug use system is also difficult to implement smoothly.
Strengthen publicity and education, raise awareness of veterinary drug users, conduct positive publicity on veterinary drug production units, operating units, and user units, state the harms of veterinary drug abuse and the disadvantages of using veterinary raw powder, and strengthen veterinary drug supervision and increase penalties Perseverance will definitely achieve better results.